Trivial applications

Note

To successfully run the following examples, please make sure that NFD is properly configured and running. For more information about NFD, refer to NFD’s official homepage.

Trivial consumer

In the following trivial example, a consumer creates a Face with default transport (UnixTransport) and sends an Interest for /localhost/testApp/randomData. While expressing Interest, the app specifies three callbacks to be called when Data/Nack is retrieved or Interest times out.

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/* -*- Mode:C++; c-file-style:"gnu"; indent-tabs-mode:nil; -*- */
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2013-2017 Regents of the University of California.
 *
 * This file is part of ndn-cxx library (NDN C++ library with eXperimental eXtensions).
 *
 * ndn-cxx library is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
 * terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software
 * Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * ndn-cxx library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
 * WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A
 * PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received copies of the GNU General Public License and GNU Lesser
 * General Public License along with ndn-cxx, e.g., in COPYING.md file.  If not, see
 * <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 *
 * See AUTHORS.md for complete list of ndn-cxx authors and contributors.
 *
 * @author Alexander Afanasyev <http://lasr.cs.ucla.edu/afanasyev/index.html>
 */

// correct way to include ndn-cxx headers
// #include <ndn-cxx/face.hpp>
#include "face.hpp"

#include <iostream>

// Enclosing code in ndn simplifies coding (can also use `using namespace ndn`)
namespace ndn {
// Additional nested namespaces can be used to prevent/limit name conflicts
namespace examples {

class Consumer : noncopyable
{
public:
  void
  run()
  {
    Interest interest(Name("/example/testApp/randomData"));
    interest.setInterestLifetime(time::milliseconds(1000));
    interest.setMustBeFresh(true);

    m_face.expressInterest(interest,
                           bind(&Consumer::onData, this,  _1, _2),
                           bind(&Consumer::onNack, this, _1, _2),
                           bind(&Consumer::onTimeout, this, _1));

    std::cout << "Sending " << interest << std::endl;

    // processEvents will block until the requested data received or timeout occurs
    m_face.processEvents();
  }

private:
  void
  onData(const Interest& interest, const Data& data)
  {
    std::cout << data << std::endl;
  }

  void
  onNack(const Interest& interest, const lp::Nack& nack)
  {
    std::cout << "received Nack with reason " << nack.getReason()
              << " for interest " << interest << std::endl;
  }

  void
  onTimeout(const Interest& interest)
  {
    std::cout << "Timeout " << interest << std::endl;
  }

private:
  Face m_face;
};

} // namespace examples
} // namespace ndn

int
main(int argc, char** argv)
{
  ndn::examples::Consumer consumer;
  try {
    consumer.run();
  }
  catch (const std::exception& e) {
    std::cerr << "ERROR: " << e.what() << std::endl;
  }
  return 0;
}

Trivial producer

The following example demonstrates how to write a simple producer application.

First, the application sets an Interest filter for /localhost/testApp to receive all Interests that have this prefix. The Face::setInterestFilter() call accepts two callbacks; the first will be called when an Interest is received and the second if prefix registration fails.

After an Interest is received, the producer creates a Data packet with the same name as the received Interest, adds content, and signs it with the system-default identity. It is also possible to specify a particular key to be used during the signing. For more information, refer to KeyChain API documentation.

Finally, after Data packet has been created and signed, it is returned to the requester using Face::put() method.

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/* -*- Mode:C++; c-file-style:"gnu"; indent-tabs-mode:nil; -*- */
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2013-2017 Regents of the University of California.
 *
 * This file is part of ndn-cxx library (NDN C++ library with eXperimental eXtensions).
 *
 * ndn-cxx library is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
 * terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software
 * Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * ndn-cxx library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
 * WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A
 * PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received copies of the GNU General Public License and GNU Lesser
 * General Public License along with ndn-cxx, e.g., in COPYING.md file.  If not, see
 * <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 *
 * See AUTHORS.md for complete list of ndn-cxx authors and contributors.
 *
 * @author Alexander Afanasyev <http://lasr.cs.ucla.edu/afanasyev/index.html>
 */

// correct way to include ndn-cxx headers
// #include <ndn-cxx/face.hpp>
// #include <ndn-cxx/security/key-chain.hpp>
#include "face.hpp"
#include "security/key-chain.hpp"

#include <iostream>

// Enclosing code in ndn simplifies coding (can also use `using namespace ndn`)
namespace ndn {
// Additional nested namespaces can be used to prevent/limit name conflicts
namespace examples {

class Producer : noncopyable
{
public:
  void
  run()
  {
    m_face.setInterestFilter("/example/testApp",
                             bind(&Producer::onInterest, this, _1, _2),
                             RegisterPrefixSuccessCallback(),
                             bind(&Producer::onRegisterFailed, this, _1, _2));
    m_face.processEvents();
  }

private:
  void
  onInterest(const InterestFilter& filter, const Interest& interest)
  {
    std::cout << "<< I: " << interest << std::endl;

    // Create new name, based on Interest's name
    Name dataName(interest.getName());
    dataName
      .append("testApp") // add "testApp" component to Interest name
      .appendVersion();  // add "version" component (current UNIX timestamp in milliseconds)

    static const std::string content = "HELLO KITTY";

    // Create Data packet
    shared_ptr<Data> data = make_shared<Data>();
    data->setName(dataName);
    data->setFreshnessPeriod(time::seconds(10));
    data->setContent(reinterpret_cast<const uint8_t*>(content.c_str()), content.size());

    // Sign Data packet with default identity
    m_keyChain.sign(*data);
    // m_keyChain.sign(data, <identityName>);
    // m_keyChain.sign(data, <certificate>);

    // Return Data packet to the requester
    std::cout << ">> D: " << *data << std::endl;
    m_face.put(*data);
  }


  void
  onRegisterFailed(const Name& prefix, const std::string& reason)
  {
    std::cerr << "ERROR: Failed to register prefix \""
              << prefix << "\" in local hub's daemon (" << reason << ")"
              << std::endl;
    m_face.shutdown();
  }

private:
  Face m_face;
  KeyChain m_keyChain;
};

} // namespace examples
} // namespace ndn

int
main(int argc, char** argv)
{
  ndn::examples::Producer producer;
  try {
    producer.run();
  }
  catch (const std::exception& e) {
    std::cerr << "ERROR: " << e.what() << std::endl;
  }
  return 0;
}

Consumer that uses Scheduler

The following example demonstrates how to use Scheduler to schedule arbitrary events for execution at specific points of time.

The library internally uses boost::asio::io_service to implement fully asynchronous NDN operations (i.e., sending and receiving Interests and Data). In addition to network-related operations, boost::asio::io_service can be used to execute any arbitrary callback within the processing thread (run either explicitly via io.run or implicitly via Face::processEvents() as in previous examples). Scheduler is just a wrapper on top of boost::asio::io_service, allowing simple interface to schedule tasks at specific times.

The highlighted lines in the example demonstrate all that is needed to express a second Interest approximately 2 seconds after the first one.

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/* -*- Mode:C++; c-file-style:"gnu"; indent-tabs-mode:nil; -*- */
/*
 * Copyright (c) 2013-2017 Regents of the University of California.
 *
 * This file is part of ndn-cxx library (NDN C++ library with eXperimental eXtensions).
 *
 * ndn-cxx library is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
 * terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software
 * Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * ndn-cxx library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
 * WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A
 * PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received copies of the GNU General Public License and GNU Lesser
 * General Public License along with ndn-cxx, e.g., in COPYING.md file.  If not, see
 * <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 *
 * See AUTHORS.md for complete list of ndn-cxx authors and contributors.
 *
 * @author Alexander Afanasyev <http://lasr.cs.ucla.edu/afanasyev/index.html>
 */

// correct way to include ndn-cxx headers
// #include <ndn-cxx/face.hpp>
// #include <ndn-cxx/util/scheduler.hpp>
#include "face.hpp"
#include "util/scheduler.hpp"

#include <boost/asio/io_service.hpp>
#include <iostream>

// Enclosing code in ndn simplifies coding (can also use `using namespace ndn`)
namespace ndn {
// Additional nested namespaces can be used to prevent/limit name conflicts
namespace examples {

class ConsumerWithTimer
{
public:
  ConsumerWithTimer()
    : m_face(m_ioService) // Create face with io_service object
    , m_scheduler(m_ioService)
  {
  }

  void
  run()
  {
    Interest interest(Name("/example/testApp/randomData"));
    interest.setInterestLifetime(time::seconds(1));
    interest.setMustBeFresh(true);

    m_face.expressInterest(interest,
                           bind(&ConsumerWithTimer::onData, this, _1, _2),
                           bind(&ConsumerWithTimer::onNack, this, _1, _2),
                           bind(&ConsumerWithTimer::onTimeout, this, _1));

    std::cout << "Sending " << interest << std::endl;

    // Schedule a new event
    m_scheduler.scheduleEvent(time::seconds(2), [this] { delayedInterest(); });

    // m_ioService.run() will block until all events finished or m_ioService.stop() is called
    m_ioService.run();

    // Alternatively, m_face.processEvents() can also be called.
    // processEvents will block until the requested data received or timeout occurs.
    // m_face.processEvents();
  }

private:
  void
  onData(const Interest& interest, const Data& data)
  {
    std::cout << data << std::endl;
  }

  void
  onNack(const Interest& interest, const lp::Nack& nack)
  {
    std::cout << "received Nack with reason " << nack.getReason()
              << " for interest " << interest << std::endl;
  }

  void
  onTimeout(const Interest& interest)
  {
    std::cout << "Timeout " << interest << std::endl;
  }

  void
  delayedInterest()
  {
    std::cout << "One more Interest, delayed by the scheduler" << std::endl;

    Interest interest(Name("/example/testApp/randomData"));
    interest.setInterestLifetime(time::milliseconds(1000));
    interest.setMustBeFresh(true);

    m_face.expressInterest(interest,
                           bind(&ConsumerWithTimer::onData, this, _1, _2),
                           bind(&ConsumerWithTimer::onNack, this, _1, _2),
                           bind(&ConsumerWithTimer::onTimeout, this, _1));

    std::cout << "Sending " << interest << std::endl;
  }

private:
  // Explicitly create io_service object, which can be shared between Face and Scheduler
  boost::asio::io_service m_ioService;
  Face m_face;
  Scheduler m_scheduler;
};

} // namespace examples
} // namespace ndn

int
main(int argc, char** argv)
{
  ndn::examples::ConsumerWithTimer consumer;
  try {
    consumer.run();
  }
  catch (const std::exception& e) {
    std::cerr << "ERROR: " << e.what() << std::endl;
  }
  return 0;
}